Invention of personal computer
The computer was first invented by a small firm called MITS. Which is known as Altair computer. This computer using the 8080 microprocessor of Intel Corporation was developed in 1974. At that time the Altair computer was popular among hobbyists. But its commercial appeal was limited.
Personal computer is a digital computer. Designed for use by only one person at a time. A typical personal computer assembly consists of a central processing unit (CPU), which houses the computer’s arithmetic, logic, and control circuitry on an integrated circuit.
There are two types of computer memory.
- Main memory – such as digital random-access memory (RAM).
- Auxiliary memory – such as magnetic hard disks and special optical compact discs, or read-only memory (ROM) discs (CD-ROM and DVD-ROM); and various input/output devices including display screens, keyboard and mouse, modem and printer.
History of personal computer –
Before the personal computer (abbreviated PC), computers were designed for large organizations, connecting thin terminals for multiple users to a single large computer whose resources were shared among all users. The advent of the personal computer (PC) broke the tradition of terminal computing. By the late 1980s, technology advances made it possible to create a small computer that a person could own and use.
The widespread use of personal computers began in the 1980s. The first was expensive, worked late and had little to do with today’s eyes. History shows that their antecedents were exclusively in the form of calculating machines. It was the development of an effective operating system and user-friendly interface that accelerated development and allowed them to become word processors.
According to computer history, the first “personal computer” was the Kenbak-1, launched in 1971. It had 256 bytes of memory and was advertised in Scientific American for $750, however, it did not have a CPU and was like other systems. Era, designed for educational use.
Personal computer use –
Personal computers (PCs) are also used for word processing, Internet communication and working with sound compositions, and for DTP. PC is the most valuable technology in the world. The data processing capabilities of PCs have increased their use.
What features should my personal computer have ?
In today’s digital world, computer has become an important part of human life due to its incredible features. Everyone wants to use computer as per their requirement, it has many functions and unique functions.
Features of personal computer –
Computers have an incredible speed that is beyond human capabilities. Where a human takes a few minutes to do a small calculation, on the other hand performs many calculations like millions of multiplication, division, addition, subtraction in less than a second, such speed is provided by the processor of the computer. She goes.
Speed is one of the important characteristics of a computer, and speed is measured in terms of hertz. Intensity is measured in seconds, that is, per second, per millisecond, and nanoseconds. It can solve complex numerical and logical, and mathematical problems more quickly than humans.
Not only calculations, computers also process many types of tasks in the blink of an eye, which takes a lot of time for humans. Thus, the computer accomplishes the task with the ability to make quick decisions based on the instructions given earlier.
When a task is assigned to the computer, it continues without interruption until the automation is completed. For example, when we instruct the printer to print 100 pages from the computer’s files, it keeps on printing until the full 100 pages are reached.
Another example, you can continue to download any file or program and walk away from them; The computer will automatically download all the files in the background.
We use many types of automatic machines in our daily life. Computer is one of them which completes its entire work effortlessly. Once the proper instructions are given and the program is loaded, the computer continues to do its job automatically.
Error-free work means completing any task with perfect accuracy is another outstanding feature of a computer. Computers have great speeds and are incredibly reliable. No mistake is ever made by the computer as it always gives accurate results.
Typically, computers perform many operations and process data quickly; However, sometimes it can be wrong. Even if the computer made a mistake, it could be due to “human error”; When wrong data is inputted into the computer by the user or maybe a bug is the reason for the error.
The computer does all its work without any errors. If you are asked to multiply ten different numbers, you may make mistakes. But the computer completes any process without any mistake because the computer itself never makes any mistake.
The computer’s calculation accuracy is very high. There is a high probability of mistakes made by the individual during multiple calculations. But with the same function that the computer instructs the computer, it provides accurate results and great speed.
Permanent Storage :
The capacity of a computer system to store data and important files is huge. Computers require very little space to store millions of words. It can store all kinds of data, programs, pictures, files, games and music for many years.
In addition, the required information can be easily retrieved from the data stored in a matter of seconds using RAM (Random Access Memory), which has made the task presented inside the computer case even easier.
This is one of the most important features of computers these days; They can store or save almost any data due to their high storage capabilities. Once you have saved any data and file in the computer memory, that data remains saved until someone deletes or deletes it.
Humans forget small things in a few days, but these automatic computers keep our data forever, which is valuable and effective. These machines can store data according to the need of the user. Computers measure storage in terms of one kilobyte (KB), megabyte (MB), gigabyte (GB), and one terabyte (TB).
Examples of computer storage devices are hard disk, pen drive, memory card, floppy disk, memory card, etc.
Privacy and Agility :
Setting passwords and PIN codes for essential computer files and data makes it more secret and private. Only a person who has rights or knows the password can view or change or delete files or programs saved on the computer.
Many computer scientists and app developers are working on AI (Artificial Intelligence) to make computers more robust and accurate against hackers to maintain the best privacy. Such growth and incredible features of computers enhance the user experience.
Persistence is the ability of a computer to perform repetitive tasks without getting tired. Today, man regularly gets tired of doing multiple tasks for a few hours, losing concentration, speed and accuracy. In contrast, a computer can work continuously for several hours, days or even weeks.
The computer neither gets tired of work nor reduces the accuracy of the result. Computer is free from fatigue, fatigue, sleepiness, lack of concentration to work for hours without any interruption.
Digital computers can do many things at the same time. Like songs when users are working on computer, surfing the internet, running applications
For example, in many factories, computer-aided robots have been installed to perform many tasks that may be difficult for humans, such as tedious work, including building heavy machines and automobiles. Hence computer has become an integral part of human society.
Due to its universality feature, the use of computer has increased rapidly and is gaining power globally. Computers including Laptops, Notebooks, Chromebooks, Macs are in use for both personal and commercial purposes in almost every field like Banks, Scientific Research, Railways, Airports, Businesses, Schools etc.
Invention of internet
No one person invented the internet . But still we can say that 1st January 1983 is considered as the official birthday of internet. Prior to this, different computer networks did not have a standard way of communicating with each other. Below is a list of various people who have contributed and helped in the development of the Internet.
The Internet began in the 1960s as a way for government researchers to share information. Computers in the 60s were large and stationary and to access the information stored in a computer, one had to either visit the computer’s site or have magnetic computer tapes sent through the traditional postal system.
• Paul Byrne (1926–2011)
An engineer whose work overlaps with ARPA’s research. In 1959 he joined the RAND Corporation, an American think tank, and was asked to research how the US Air Force could take control of its fleet if a nuclear attack ever occurred. In 1964 Baran proposed a communication network with no central command point. If a point is destroyed, all living points will still be able to communicate with each other. He called it a distributed network.
• Lawrence Roberts (1937-2018)
Chief Scientist at ARPA, responsible for developing computer networks. Paul Baran’s idea attracted Roberts, and he began work on building a distributed network.
• Leonard Kleinrock (1934–)
An American scientist who worked with Lawrence Roberts towards building a distributed network.
• Donald Davis (1924-2000)
A British scientist who, at the same time as Roberts and Kleinrock, was developing similar technology at the National Physical Laboratory in Middlesex.
• Bob Kahn (1938–) and Vint Cerf (1943–)
American computer scientist who developed TCP/IP, the set of protocols that control how data moves through a network. This helped ARPANET grow into the Internet we use today. Vint Cerf is credited with the first written use of the word ‘Internet‘.
• Paul Mokapetris (1948–) and John Postel (1943–98)
Inventor of DNS, the ‘phone book of the Internet‘.
• Tim Berners-Lee (1955-)
The creators of the World Wide Web who developed many of the principles we use today, such as HTML, HTTP, URLs, and the web browser.
• Mark Andreessen (1971-)
Inventor of Mosaic, the first widely used web browser.
Idea of internet –
The early idea of the Internet is attributed to Leonard Kleinrock, when he published his first paper titled “Information Flows in Large Communication Nets” on May 31, 1961.
In 1962, J.C.R. Licklider became the first director of IPTO and gave his vision of a galactic network. In addition, along with ideas from Licklider and Kleinrock, Robert Taylor helped form the idea of the network that would later become ARPANET.
Internet facilities –
The Internet is in some ways similar to the global telephone system : each allows almost instant 2-way connections to be established between sites anywhere in the world. However, unlike telephone conversations, the Internet allows us to communicate in a variety of ways. Most importantly, we are not limited to verbal interactions with other people – in many cases, it is possible to gain access to information stored in their computers. The infrastructure available on the Internet is described below and includes e-mail, list servers, USnet/newsgroups, File Transfer Protocol, Internet Relay Chat, the Gopher feature, and www.
E-mail, the Internet equivalent of postal mail, is the most widely used facility on the Internet. E-mail messages sent over the Internet can reach a foreign destination in seconds. You never get a busy signal and you never play “telephone tag”. A variety of e-mail programs allow you to print, forward, save and/or reply to other people’s messages. Some include advanced features that allow you to attach a word processing document, spreadsheet, software program, video or image file.
List server :
The List Server feature allows the creation of discussion groups to share information about common interests. LISTSERV, the most common list server program, copies incoming messages sent to the list and forwards them to everyone whose e-mail address is on the list. Only subscribers can submit messages to the group, which is monitored by the list manager. A user (initiator) typically joins a list by sending an appropriately worded e-mail message, which automatically prompts the LISTSERV program to extract the initiator’s e-mail address, add it to the list, and send an e-mail to the initiator. Indicates sending. Indicates sending. Prompts to send mail. Confirmation messages and information regarding use of the list.
USNET/News Group :
Internet newsgroup servers typically provide access to groups that are much less selective than those provided by list servers. Free and unrestricted access to thousands of topic-based newsgroups can be obtained by using specialized newsreader software to communicate with a local computer that acts as a news server. This software allows users to post messages or articles to any newsgroup so that other users can read and possibly attach their comments.
File Transfer Protocol :
By using the File Transfer Protocol feature, Internet users can transfer software programs, product upgrades, and other types of computer files between computer systems connected to the Internet.
Internet Relay Chat :
With Internet Relay Chat, a small number of users meet in online chat groups and “talk” to each other by typing messages on their keyboards.
The Gopher facility, created at the University of Minnesota and named after its golden gopher mascot, is one of the first “user-friendly” Internet facilities for obtaining information over a network. Using Gopher, users can connect to thousands of different computers, known as information servers or “gopher holes”, through a menu-driven “point and click” program. Hierarchically organized information is stored in each gopher hole. Users click on a descending list of different topics to find information, which may include text, sound, or images.
World Wide Web :
WWW is such a popular feature of the Internet that it has become synonymous with the Internet for many users. Developed in 1992 at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics in CERN, Switzerland, WWW connects users to Internet sites. The basic unit of WWW communication is the page similar to this printed page. There are “links” within a web page that users can click on and are automatically linked to related pages on the same or other Internet websites. With its ease of use and its multimedia ability to transmit text, graphics, audio and video to retrieve detailed information in seconds from anywhere in the world, WWW has quickly become the interface of choice for Internet users.
Features of the Internet –
Let us now discuss the features of the Internet. The features of the Internet are described below –
- Easy use :
The Internet is a global service and accessible to all. Today, even people living on an island or in a remote part of Africa can access the Internet.
- Easy to use :
The software, which is used to access the Internet (web browser), is designed very simply; Therefore, it can be easily learned and used. It is easy to develop.
- Interaction with other media :
Internet service has a high level of interaction with other media. For example, news and other magazines, publishing houses have expanded their business with the help of internet services.
- Less cost :
The cost of Internet service development and maintenance is comparatively low.
- Expansion of existing IT technology :
It facilitates sharing of IT technology by multiple users across organizations and even to other business partners.
- Flexibility of communication :
Communication via the Internet is quite flexible. It also facilitates communication through text, voice and video. These services can be availed at both organizational and individual level.
- The protection :
Last but not least, internet facility has helped the security system to some extent with components like CCTV cameras etc. at individual and national level.
- Internet software :
Internet software includes all the equipment needed for networking through a computer. Following are some important components of internet software-
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
- Dialer software
- Interment Browser
- Internet application
- Internet applications are server-based applications. Following are some internet applications –
World Wide Web (www)
- Electronic mail (e-mail)
- File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
- Telnet (ie, log-in to a remotely located computer)
- Internet Relay Chat (IRC) (Real Time Video Chatting)