What is a Router?

A router is a device that connects two or more packet-switched networks or subnetworks. It serves two primary functions: managing traffic between these networks by forwarding data packets to their intended IP addresses, and allowing multiple devices to use the same Internet connection.

You can think of a router as a small electronic device that connects or connects several computer networks together through a wired or wireless connection. Router is a hardware networking device. It is used in the network.

This networking device is used to connect different networks in wire or wirelessly.

What are the functions of Router?

  • Prevents LAN from broadcasting.
  • It works like the default gateway.
  • Protocol helps in translation.
  • Works to create a route in the middle of the network security key.
  • Works to deliver data from sender to receiver.
  • Works to connect two networks.
  • Keeps on making loop free path.
  • Finds the shortest path to reach the packet to the destination.

Router Components:


As you know, its information has been given in this article above. This is a specialized computer. It also has different parts.

  1. Central Processing Unit (CPU):
    This operating system manages all the components of all the routers.
  2. Flash memory:
    This Flash memory contains Routing Algorithm, Routing Protocol, Routing Table Store.
  3. Non-Volatile RAM:
    Inside it is the back up and startup version store of the operating system. Whenever the router boots, programs are loaded from this memory itself.
  4. RAM:
    Whenever the router is on, the operating system is loaded into RAM. After this the Router determines the Routes.
  5. Network Interfaces:
    There is the ability to learn Routes from other Routers and the packet is transmitted on the correct route.
  6. Console:
    Configuration and troubleshooting commands are given from the console.

How does Router works?


Router works to forward packets from one network to another. It can also be said that it sends packets from Source to Destination Address. Its main job is to receive the packet and deliver it to the receiver.

A Router also connects many networks and also maintains its Routing table. maintain means keeps updating. Each router keeps information about the around him.

Routing Protocol resides in all the routers, with the help of which they communicate with each other. And along with this share the information of their connected networks among themselves, update the routing table.

For Example:

You sent a Facebook message from your computer to your friend who is currently in Delhi. First of all the message gets converted into a packet and reaches the nearby router. Now it checks Routing Table with Routing Protocol.

All the nearby routers in the routing table have their address and path distance. Then after this the packet is forwarded to the nearest router, in which the IP address of the receiver remains.

How many types of Router are there?

  • Broadband Routers
    They are used to connect computers and connect them to the Internet. These are a special type of Modem which also have Ethernet and Phone Jacks.
  • Wireless Router
    They are used more in home, office, college. This wireless creates an area of wireless signal and all the computers, tablets, mobile phones in this area can use the Internet.

Advantages of Router:

  • Provides connections between different network architectures such as Ethernet & token ring etc.
  • Choose the best path across the internetwork using dynamic routing algorithms.
  • Reduce network traffic by creating collision domains and also by creating broadcast domains.
  • It provides sophisticated routing, flow control, and traffic isolation.
  • They are configurable which allows the network managers to make policies based on routing decisions.
  • Connection that routers also functions to connect different network architectures and medias.
  • Easily Shared Internet.